With the development of space technologies, it is increasingly likely that housing will soon have to be built for longer or shorter human stays on the moon. These colonizers will have to overcome a number of problems.
The first problem is how to make rooms for work and rest?
Another problem is how to make bathrooms, sinks and toilets?
The third problem is how to grow fresh food?
The fourth problem is how to process wastewater and biological waste into clean water and plant manure?
The solution to all these problems must be based on the fact that on the moon gravity is 6 times less than on earth, while atmospheric pressure is equal to zero, that is, the atmosphere does not exist.
Thanks to this knowledge, all rooms can be made on the ground in the form of balloons that can be rolled up.
On the moon by injecting air these balloons expand and turn into enclosed spaces.
Balloons could be made in two shapes.
The first shape is a dome (1) and the second shape is a tunnel (2). Both the domes (1) and the tunnels (2) at the bottom have an extension which is fastened to the ground by anchors (4). When installing the dome (1) and the tunnel (2) should be placed under a pressure of 0.05 bar. This pressure would bring the domes (1) and tunnels (2) into working position, but they would be soft and prone to expansion. Then anchors (4) driven into the ground would be placed in these extensions of the dome (1) and the tunnel (2) (located at floor level). After that, the pressure in the domes (1) and tunnels (2) could rise to a working level of 1 bar, and the extensions could be filled with soil from the surroundings up to a height of 1.5 m from the floor level of the dome (1). and tunnels (1). The ground would protect the domes (1) and tunnels (2) from lifting from the ground, thus improving the function of the anchors (4). In addition, the earth around the dome and tunnel would protect against lateral radiation from space.
When the domes (1) and tunnels (2) are placed under a pressure of 1 bar then their hardness, i.e. the resistance to external pressure would be approximately the same as the hardness of a car tire inflated to 1 bar.
A sliding door (3) would be placed between the dome (1) and the tunnel (2) and it would be the only solid parts of the dwelling. On one side of this sliding door (3) would be connected domes (1), and on the other tunnels (2). The sliding door(3) would have to withstand an air pressure of at least 2 bar in order to maintain the pressure in all other domes and tunnels in the event of a break in one dome. The sliding door (3) would have to withstand that pressure no matter which side the air pressure loss came from.
The material from which the domes (1) and tunnels (2) would be made should be partially transparent to visible light, but also as resistant as possible to harmful radiation. The domes (1) and tunnels (2) should reflect about 90% of the light, while the remaining 10% would be enough to maintain the temperature and light in the dome (1), or tunnel (2) while the sun shines on them. When light does not reach the dome (1) or tunnel (2) during the moonlit night, they should be heated and illuminated.
In addition to domes (1) and tunnels (2) for human habitation, there should be additional domes (1) or tunnels (2) for growing food, and domes (1) and tunnels (2) for separating bio-waste, domes (1). and tunnels (2) for obtaining clean water from biological waste.
Shower water, water from the sink and dirty water from the toilet would be sent from the work area to special domes (1) which would be used for waste processing. Pressing a lever would open openings in the water drains in showers, sinks and toilets. The pressure in the dome (1) for waste treatment should be 0.9 bar, which is a sufficient difference that the wastewater from residential domes (1) would print in the dome (1) for waste treatment.
The waste treatment dome (1) should be made of transparent material so that during the lunar day the temperature rises to a high temperature of at least 80 degrees at which ammonia would evaporate and harmful bacteria in the waste would be destroyed. The evaporated ammonia, together with other gases, would be discharged into the domes (1) where the plants are grown and would serve as a fertilizer for the plants. Therefore, the pressure in the domes (1) for growing plants could be about 0.8 bar. This is a sufficient pressure difference that would push all the gases from the waste processing dome into the plant growing domes.
Boiled dirty wastewater would be sent from the waste dome to the drinking water production domes. The pressure in this dome should be 0.7 bar in order for the pressure to push the wastewater from the wastewater treatment dome to the drinking water production dome. This dome would have to be transparent in order to create a high temperature in it during the lunar day which would lead to a strong evaporation of water. The hot water vapor would be piped deep into the ground where it would be cooled, and cooled to a temperature of about 20 degrees Celsius would be stored in domes that would serve as water storage.
A thick mixture of residual water and waste would be transferred from the dome for the production of drinking water to a special dome in which the pressure could be about 0.6 bar. This dome would serve as a warehouse for liquid plant fertilizer, and from here it would occasionally be sent to the domes for the production of fresh herbs.
During a moonlit night, the sun could not heat the domes (1) and tunnels (2) and should heat them. Heating would be done by pumping water through pipes placed deep into the ground. In doing so, the soil temperature obtained by pre-cooling the hot water vapor in the cooling process to a temperature of about 20 degrees Celsius would be used. In this way, the soil would serve as a cooler of water vapor during the lunar day, while during the lunar night it would serve as an accumulator of thermal energy needed to heat all the spaces during the night.
Electricity could be obtained from photovoltaic panels that would be placed around the domes, while electricity accumulators would need to be placed inside certain work domes (1) or tunnels (2) so that people could easily monitor them.
For all these conditions, the canvas from which these balloons in the form of domes (1) and tunnels (2) would be made would have to be multi-layered.
The outer canvas should be resistant to tearing under shocks, and to the high temperatures that prevail during the lunar day, but also to the low temperatures that prevail during the lunar night.
The second layer in the material from which the domes (1) and tunnels (2) are made should be made of elastic material which, by its expansion, could clog any microfractures that could be caused by the impact of micrometeors, or small particles from the environment.
The third inner layer of the canvas should be comfortable for human touch, but also strong enough and resistant to tearing in case of an unintentional fall of a knife or other sharp objects.