Compressed air is pressure-pressurized atmospheric air, which is used as a means for transferring and storing energy.
When the air is pressed, its temperature rises. This temperature must what be removed accommodate more compressed air.
During expansion, the air cools. Due to this heating in compression and cooling at expansion, energy losses can be eliminated by storing or utilizing energy in the compression and by heating from the environment in the expansion.
Energy compressed air storage systems are very cheap and long lasting.
With expansion, energy compressed air can be re-energized by get it againpneumatic motors, piston motors, lamellas, or turbines.
Pneumatic motors have the best usability at constant flow pressure. With variable pressure the engine efficiency is reduced. Efficiency of energy utilization also decreases due to the cooling of the air in expansion.
In order to reduce energy losses, it is possible to carry out expansion through a series of air turbine blade rows, between which the cooled air is heated by the surrounding atmospheric air.
The air turbine is powered by a compressed air flow coming from the front. Compressed air passes through several rotor blades rows, and stator blades. Between the rotor blades there are stator blades.
The stator blades are much longer and thicker than the rotor blades. Through them, air flows stream from the environment. In each blade of the stator, a pipe is inserted through which the air enters the front and the rear exit. This is best seen in Figure 3 in the longitudinal section of the blade. This is also seen in Figure 2 in the vertical section of the blade.
In the operation of a turbine compressed air transfers the kinetic energy of the air to the rotor blades. The rotor powered a second machine, or an electric generator, is driven by the shaft. By spreading air, its temperature decreases. This reduces the energy that the compressed air can deliver on the rotor blades.
The stator blades have two functions.
The first function is to direct the air jets on the rotor blades.
The second function is to heat the chilled air to maximize usable energy.
The entire air turbine is located in a larger pipe through which the surrounding atmospheric air flows. This is seen in the cross-section of Figure 1. From this wide pipe the atmospheric air enters the stator blades which heats up, and air return to a wide tube. This tube in which the air turbine is located at its end is narrowed to the shape of the Venturi tubes. The compressed air passing through the turbine passes through this venturi tube where a vacuum is produced. The low pressure drains the atmospheric air through a wide tube inside the air turbine. This ensures air flow through the tubes located in the stator blades.
Such compressed air heating within the turbine itself achieves a much higher coefficient of compressed air energy utilization. Greater utilization of compressed air energy increases the economy of air turbines.
The higher the coefficient of utilization of compressed air energy increases the economics of energy storage in the form of compressed air.
It also increases the efficiency of the vehicle on compressed air. In such vehicles the problem is the large volume of compressed air vessel. With a higher energy efficiency coefficient, it is possible to increase the vehicle's range to compressed air.