There are ships that can sail on icy water surfaces.
They are called icebreakers.
Some of them hit the ice with their front end, thus breaking it, which allows them to continue sailing.
When the ice is big then even the strongest icebreakers can’t break the ice surfaces. For such situations, there are large icebreakers that rest their front end on the ice surface and thus break the ice with their weight. They are most commonly used around the North and South Earth poles.
However, they cannot work on shallower sea depths, rivers and lakes, nor on very thick ice surfaces.
This problem could be solved by making the ship with a large sledge to move on the surface of the ice. Such a ship is schematically shown in the pictures above.
Such sledges (2) could be made in the form of two keels located on the bottom of the ship (1) on both sides, as seen in Fig. 1 and Fig. 3. While sailing the ship (1) moves with the help of a rotating propeller 4) which is immersed in water. This propeller can also be turned to the side, so the boat (1) does not have to have a rudder. At the front of the ship (1) there are caterpillars (3) raised in the air while the ship is sailing Fig. 1, and when the ship encounters thick ice the caterpillars (3) descend to the ice. By moving the tracks (3), the ship is pulled onto the ice surface, and then the rotary propeller (4) must be raised so as not to get stuck on the ice surface Fig. 2 and Fig.3. The caterpillars are driven by electric motors that must be strong enough to pull the whole ship (1) on the surface of the ice, and such a ship can move on land where there is a thicker layer of ice or snow. Electric motors are powered by electricity produced by motors with a generator located on board. If the ship needs to change the direction of movement on the ice, this is achieved by turning the tracks (3) to the left or to the right.
Such a vessel would be very useful for scientific research of the North and South Poles, for fishermen fishing on frozen seas by rivers and lakes, and for transport to distant smaller places by the sea of rivers and lakes during severe winters.